Terminology

Why do we learn Theory and Korean Terms?

Learning the theory behind TaekwonDo is an important part of your training. At every grading you will be tested on theory and Korean terms relevant to your grade.  You should also try to remember theory and Korean terms from all previous gradings.

TaekwonDo is an international martial art originating from Korea.  As such the terminology is taught in Korean to break down international language barriers.  You do not need to speak Korean to learn TaekwonDo! However you should try to learn the Korean terminology used.

You should also learn the meanings behind the patterns, which are named after historical Korean figures who set a good example to others (usually in demonstrating the tenets of TaekwonDo).

Whilst the theory can be a little daunting to start with, you will be surprised at how easy it becomes if you put the effort in. For example the Korean for stance is ‘Sogi’; therefore all stances in Korean are {something} Sogi, e.g annun sogi = sitting stance, gunnun sogi = walking stance.  So now all you need to learn are the names of the different stances, because you know the word for stance is 'Sogi'.

We suggest that you learn the basics as quickly as possible, and then always try to learn any new terminology relevant to your grade (for example new moves in patterns).

This page contains a comprehensive list of TaekwonDo terms in English and Korean.  Use the search box at the top of each table to find a specific term (English or Korean).
Basic Information 
Where does TaekwonDo come fromKorea
What does TaekwonDo mean?Literally: "Foot Hand Art"
Who was the founder of TaekwonDo?Major General Choi Hong Hi, 9th degree
When did TaekwonDo become an official martial art?April 11th 1955
When did TaekwonDo come to the UK1967, by GM Rhee Ki Ha
Basic TermsKorean
Training HallDojang
Training SuitDobok
Face InstructorSabum (or Boo Sabum) Nim Ke
AttentionCharyot
BowKyong ye
ReadyChunbi
In your own timeKooryong Opshi
Begin/StartSi Jak
About turnDwiyo dorra
Return to ReadyParo
StopGoman
Seperate (in sparring)Haechyo
Continue (in sparring)Gaesok
RelaxSwiyo
DismissHae San
English - BLOCKKorean - MAKGI
High BlockNopunde Makgi
Middle BlockKaunde Makgi
Low BlockNajunde Makgi
Outside BlockBakat Makgi
Inside BlockAn Makgi
Outward BlockBakuro Makgi
Inward BlockAnuro Makgi
Knife-hand Low BlockSonkal Najunde Makgi
Forearm Low BlockPalmok Najunde Makgi
Reverse Knife-hand Low BlockSonkal Dung Najunde Makgi
Palm Low BlockSonbadak Najunde Makgi
Rising BlockChookyo Makgi
X-Fist Rising BlockGyocha Joomuk Chookyo Makgi
X-knife-hand Rising BlockGyocha Sonkal Chookyo Makgi
Twin Palm Rising BlockSang Sonbadak Chookyo Makgi
Arc-Hand Rising BlockBandal Son Chookyo Makgi
Double arc hand BlockDoobandalson Makgi
Double Forearm BlockDoo Polmok Makgi
Twin Forearm BlockSang Palmok Makgi
Circular BlockDollimyo Makgi
Dodging BlockPihagi Makgi
Grasping BlockButjaba Makgi
Nine (9) -Shape BlockGutja Makgi
Louring BlockYuin Makgi
Flat BlockOpun Makgi
Waist BlockHori Makgi
Checking BlockMomchau Makgi
Straight Forearm BlockSun Palmok Makgi
Side Front BlockYobap Makgi
X-fist BlockGyocha Joomuk Makgi
X-knife hand BlockGyocha Sonkal Makgi
U-shape BlockDigutja Makgi
U-shape GraspDigutja Japji
Upward BlockOllyo Makgi
Palm Upward BlockSonbadak Ollyo Makgi
Reverse Knife-hand Upward BlockSonkal Dung Ollyo Makgi
Thumb Ridge Upward BlockUmji Batang Ollyo Makgi
Bow Wrist Upward BlockSonmok Dung Ollyo Makgi
Twin Palm Upward BlockSang Sonbadak Ollyo Makgi
Downward BlockNaeryo Makgi
Palm Downward BlockSonbadak Naeryo Makgi
Twin Palm Downward BlockSang Sonbadak Naeryo Makgi
Alternate Palm Downward BlockEuhkallin Sonbadak Naeryo Makgi
Twin Forearm Downward BlockSang Palmok Naeryo Makgi
Knife-hand Downward BlockSonkal Naeryo Makgi
Twin Knife-hand Downward BlockSang Sonkal Naeryo Makgi
Straight Elbow Downward BlockSun Palkup Naeryo Makgi
X-fist Downward BlockGyocha Joomuk Naeryo Makgi
X-knife-hand Downward BlockGyocha Sonkal Naeryo Makgi
Pressing BlockNoollo Makgi
Palm Pressing BlockSonbadak Noollo Makgi
Fore-fist Pressing BlockAp Joomuk Noollo Makgi
Twin Palm Pressing BlockSang Sonbadak Noollo Makgi
X-Fist Pressing BlockGyocha Joomuk Noollo Makgi
Hooking BlockGolcho Makgi
Palm Hooking BlockSonbadak Golcho Makgi
Forearm Hooking BlockPalmok Golcho Makgi
Knife-hand Hooking BlockSonkal Golcho Makgi
Back-hand Hooking BlockSondung Golcho Makgi
Wedging BlockHechyo Makgi
Inner Forearm Wedging BlockAn Palmok Hechyo Makgi
Outer Forearm Wedging BlockBakat Palmok Hechyo Makgi
Knife-hand Wedging BlockSonkal Hechyo Makgi
Reverse Knife-hand Wedging BlockSonkal Dung Hechyo Makgi
Vertical BlockSewo Makgi
W-shape BlockSan Makgi
Outer W-shape BlockBakat San Makgi
Knife-hand W-shape BlockSonkal San Makgi
Reverse Knife-hand W-shape BlockSonkal Dung San Makgi
Inner W-shape BlockAn San Makgi
Front BlockAp Makgi
Twin Palm Front BlockSang Sonbadak Ap Makgi
Reverse Knife-hand Front BlockSonkal Dung Ap Makgi
X-fist Front BlockGyocha Joomuk
X-Knife hand Front BlockGyocha Sonkal Ap Makgi
Side BlockYop Makgi
Knife hand Side BlockSonka Yop Makgi
Forearm Side BlockPalmok Yop Makgi
Reverse Knife-hand Side BlockSonkal Dung Yop Makgi
Single Straight Forearm BlockWae Sun Palmok
Twin Straight Forearm BlockSang Sun Palmok Makgi
Twin Straight Knife-handSang Sun Sonkal Makgi
Parallel BlockNarani Makgi
Inner Forearm Parallel BlockAn Palmok Narani Makgi
Outer Forearm Parallel BlockBakat Palmok Narani Makgi
Knife-hand Parallel BlockSonkal Narani Makgi
Reverse Knife-hand Parallel BlockSonkal Dung Narani Makgi
Back Forearm Parallel BlockDwit Palmok Narani Makgi
Back Hand Parallel BlockSondung Narani Makgi
Pushing BlockMiro Makgi
Palm Pushing BlockSonbadak Miro Makgi
Double Forearm Pushing BlockDoo Palmok Miro Makgi
Reverse Knife-hand Pushing BlockSonkal Dung Miro Makgi
Knife hand Pushing BlockSonkal Miro Makgi
Scooping BlockDuro Makgi
Palm Scooping BlockSongbadak Duro Makgi
Reverse Knife-hand Scooping BlockSonkal Dung Duro Makgi
Guarding BlockDaebi Makgi
Forearm Guarding BlockPalmok Daebi Makgi
Knife-hand Guarding BlockSonkal Daebi Makgi
Inner Forearm Guarding BlockAn Palmok Daebi Makgi
Knife-hand Low Guarding BlockSonkal Najunde Daebi Makgi
Reverse Knife-hand Low Guarding BlockSonkal Dung Najunde Daebi Makgi
Twin Forearm BlockSang Palmok Makgi
Twin Knife-handSang Sonkal Makgi
Horizontal BlockSoopyong Makgi
Twin Palm Horizontal BlockSang Sonbadak Soopyong Makgi
Twin Knife-hand Horizontal BlockSang Sonkal Soopyong Makgi
English - StanceKorean - Sogi
SittingAnnun Sogi
ParallelNarani Sogi
WalkingGunnun Sogi
AttentionCharyot Sogi
DiagonalSasun Sogi
LNiunja Sogi
XKyocha Sogi
FixedGojung Sogi
CloseMoa Sogi
BendingGuburyo Sogi
One LegWaebal Sogi
VerticalSoo Jik Sogi
Rear FootDwit Bal Sogi
LowNachuo Sogi
Outer Open Stance (45 Degree)Bakat Palja Sogi
Inner Open Stance (toes inward)An Palja Sogi
ReadyJunbi Sogi
Parallel ReadyNarani Junbi Sogi
Walking ReadyGunnun Junbi Sogi
Bending ReadyGuburyo Junbi Sogi
Warrior Ready StanceMoosa Junbi Sogi
L-ReadyNiunja Junbi Sogi
X-ReadyKyocha Junbi Sogi
Sitting ReadyAnnun Junbi Sogi
Close Ready (type A,B,C)Moa Junbi Sogi (A,B,C)
CrouchedOguryo Sogi
English - Hand TechniqueKorean - Son Gisool
Vertical PunchSewo Jirugi
Side PunchYop Jirugi
Side Front PunchYobap Jirugi
Upward PunchOllyo Jirugi
Upset PunchDwijibo Jirugi
U-shape PunchDigutja Jirugi
Crescent PunchBandal Jirugi
Downward PunchNaeryo Jirugi
Turning PunchDollyo Jirugi
Angle PunchGiokja Jirugi
Knuckle Fist PunchSongarak Joomuk Jirugi
Twin Fore-knuckle FistSang Han Songarak Joomuk
Middle Knuckle FistKaunde Joongji Joomuk Jirugi
Twin Middle Knuckle FistSang Kaunde Joongji Joomuk Jirugi
Thumb Knuckle FistUmji Songarak Joomuk
Horizontal PunchSoopyong Jirugi
Long Fist PunchGhin Joomuk Jirugi
Open Fist PunchPyon Joomuk Jirugi
Double Fist PunchDoo Joomuk Jirugi
Horizontal ThrustSoopyong Tulgi
Twin ElbowSang Palgup
Single ElbowWae Palgup
Back ElbowDwit Palgup
Twin Side Back ElbowSang Yop Dwit Palkup
Cross CutGhutgi
Inward Cross CutAnuro Ghutgi
Outward Cross CutBakuro Ghutgi
Side Cross CutYop Ghutgi
Upper Elbow StrikeWi Palkup Taerigi
Upper Back Elbow StrikeWidwi Palkup Taerigi
Front Elbow StrikeAp Palkup Taerigi
High Elbow StrikeNopun Palkup Taerigi
Inward Knife-Hand StrikeAnuro Sonkal Taerigi
Twin Knife-hand StrikeSang Sonkal Taerigi
Reverse Knife-hand StrikeSonkal Dung Taerigi
Twin Reverse Knife-hand StrikeSang Sonkal Dung Taerigi
Under Fist StrikeMit Joomuk Taerigi
Bear Hand StrikeGomson Taerigi
Finger Pincers StrikeJipge Son Taerigi
Downward StrikeNaeryo Taerigi
Side Downward StrikeYop Naeryo Taerigi
Side Downward Knife-Hand StrikeYop Naeryo Sonkal Taerigi
Side Downward Side Fist StrikeYop Naeryo Yop Joomuk Taerigi
Side Downward Back Hand StrikeYop Naeryo Sondung Taerigi
Front Downward StrikeAp Naeryo Taerigi
Outward Knife-hand strikeBakuro Sonkal Taerigi
Outward Side-fist StrikeBakuro Yop Joomuk Taerigi
Knife Hand Side StrikeSonkal Yop Taerigi
Side Fist StrikeYop Joomuk Taerigi
Back Fist StrikeDung Joomuk Taerigi
Twin Back FistSang Dung Joomuk Taerigi
Back Hand StrikeSondung Taerigi
Twin Back HandSang Sondung Taerigi
Back Fist Wedging StrikeDung Joomuk Hechyo Taerigi
Knife-Hand Horizontal StrikeSonkal Soopyong Taerigi
Twin Back Fist Horizontal StrikeSang Dung Joomuk Soopyong Taerigi
Twin Side Fist Horizontal StrikeSang Yop Joomuk Soopyong Taerigi
Twin Back Hand Horizontal StrikeSang Sondung Taerigi
Back Fist Side Front StrikeDung Joomuk Yobap Taerigi
Back Hand Side Front StrikeSondung Yobap Taerigi
Reverse Knife-hand Side Front StrikeSonkal Dung Yobap Taerigi
Front Back-fist StrikeAp Dung Joomuk Taerigi
Front Knife-hand StrikeAp Sonkal Taerigi
Front Reverse Knife-hand StrikeAp Sonkal Dung Taerigi
Crescent StrikeBandal Taerigi
Arc Hand Crescent StrikeBandal Son Taerigi
Finger Pincers Crescent StrikeJipge Son Bandal Taerigi
Backside StrikeYopdwi Taerigi
Side Front StrikeYobap Taerigi
Reverse Knife-hand Side Front StrikeSonkal Dung Yobap Taerigi
English - KicksKorean - Chagi
HookingGolcha Chagi
Reverse HookingBandae Dollyo Gorochagi
TurningDollyo Chagi
Side Turning (On 75 degrees)Yop Dollyo Chagi
Reverse TurningBandae Dollyo Chagi
TwistingBituro Chagi
Low TwistingNajunde Bituro Chagi
Middle TwistingKaunde Bituro Chagi
High TwistingNopunde Bituro Chagi
DownwardNaero Chagi
Pick-Shape KickGokaeng-I Chagi
CrescentBandal Chagi
Front RisingApcha Olligi
Side RisingYopcha Olligi
Front PiercingApcha Jirugi
Side PiercingYop Cha Jirugi
Reverse HookingBandae Dollyo Goro
Back PiercingDwitcha Jirugi
Front Snap KickApcha Busigi
VerticalSewo Chagi
StampingCha Bapgi
SweepingSuroh Chagi
Straight KickJigeau Chagi
Foot Tackling (Take down)Bal Golgi
Counter KickBada Chagi
Punching KickJirumyo Chagi
U-Shape Punching KickDigutja Jirumyo Chagi
Side Punching KickYop Jirumyo Chagi
Front Punching KickAp Jirumyo Chagi
Horizontal Striking KickSoopyong Taerimyo Chagi
Grasping KickButjapyo Chagi
Pressing KickNoollo Chagi
Inward KickAnuro Chagi
Outward KickBaturo Chagi
Upward Kick (Knee)Ollyo Chagi
Side Front Snap KickYopap Cha Busigi
Back Snap KickDwitcha Busigi
Side Pushing KickYopcha Milgi
Back Pushing KickDwitcha Milgi
Double KickL-Jung Chagi
Triple KickSamjung Chagi
Skip KickDuro Gamyo Chagi
Waving KickDoro Chagi
CheckingCha Mumchugi
Front CheckingApcha Momchugi
Side CheckingYopcha Momchugi
Hooking KickGolcho Chagi
English - Thrusting TechniqueKorean - Tulgi Gisool
FingertipSonkut Tulgi
Double FingertipDoo Sonkut Tulgi
Flat FingertipOpun Sonkut Tulgi
Upset FingertipDwijibo Sonkut Tulgi
Straight FingertipSun Sonkut Tulgi
Angle FingertipHomi Sonkut Tulgi
Downward ThrustNaeryo Tulgi
Straight ElbowSun Palkup Tulgi
Side ThrustYop Tulgi
Double FingertipDoo Sonkut Tulgi
Side-front ThrustYobap Tulgi
Side ElbowYop Palkup
Single Side ElbowWae Yop Palkup
Twin Side ElbowSang Yop Palkup